Theory of humor : taboos, humor and ethics

Semiotic advertising strategy,
a subtle rhetoric using taboos, humor and ethics

The League Against Cancer launched a campaign using taboos, humor and ethics

In 2008, the League Against Cancer launched a campaign of six posters showing a semiotic advertising strategy. Using taboos, humor and ethics, the utterer developed a sophisticated rhetoric. A rehetoric from operations and figures (syllepse, implied paronomase, anaplodiplose, …) to encourage friends and relatives. To encourage them at risk of one of these cancers to talk about screening (the backbone of the semiotic advertising strategy). These taboos relate to three types of cancer: colon-rectum, breast and uterine cancer.

Through a semiotic advertising strategy analysis we «dismantle » mechanism of humour. This operation in order to show how humour, ethics, values and taboos are involved in the rhetoric of advertising. The analysis reveals the semiotic generation of sense. The study of  the texts, visuals and composition of the six posters enables us to distinguish between the different styles and rhetorical operations used by the taboo of those employed by humour. This article is from a more comprehensive and more general piece of work on humour. This article deals with its types, its properties and the operations which are specific to it.

Same Subject (in French) : Elastoplast

NAS (Nouveaux Actes Sémiotiques), Université de Limoges, publication numérique en ligne (http://revues.unilim.fr/nas)

Catégorie : Parutions

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Théorie de l’humour : humour, éthique et tabou

humour, éthique et tabou

humour, éthique et tabou :

Conférence, Les Rencontres de Sophie, Université populaire, Le Lieu Unique, Nantes.

Comment humour, éthique et tabou sont parfois étroitement liés pour permettre à l’Autre de se raconter

Humour, éthique et tabou dans une stratégie publicitaire

La Ligue Contre le Cancer (LCC) a lancé une campagne pour motiver les proches à parler dépistage. Le rôle de l’entourage des personnes susceptibles d’être atteintes d’un cancer (côlon rectum, sein ou col de l’utérus) est primordial. Nous nous servons des six affiches de cette campagne pour repérer comment l’Autre se trouve au cœur d’un dispositif qui mêle humour, éthique et tabou.

Comment la LCC résout la problématique du tabou par des figures rhétoriques

Si on admet, comme postulat en communication de masse que :
– par ses publicités, la LCC cherche à se rapprocher des destinataires
– sa stratégie vise à la différencier et à informer les destinataires sur les cancers mais que
– les tabous (Nathan, 1990 : 325) cherchent à étouffer les dites informations
alors nous montrons comment l’humour peut être une tactique intéressante. Humour à intégrer dans une stratégie dont l’objectif est le dévoilement pour soigner.

L’humour pour potentialiser un comportement d’adhésion

Parmi les différents objectifs de ces annonces, l’un est de potentialiser voire, d’actualiser un comportement d’adhésion de l’énonciataire. Dans ce processus de persuasion, l’humour permet de considérer le proche ou le malade non plus comme un simple lecteur «passif » mais comme un énonciataire, un lecteur «actif » qui participe à l’énoncé. Ainsi, le proche peut-il s’engager ou ne pas s’engager. Dans ce processus de persuasion, l’humour comme force collective d’énonciation peut également convoquer de l’éthique ou des valeurs. Celles-ci sont liées au secteur humanitaire, à la préoccupation actuelle de Santé publique ou à l’activité économique de l’entreprise.

Mais comment utiliser l’humour (au sens générique sans distinction de types) dans un contexte de santé publique sans atteindre les valeurs de chacun ? Comment l’humour permet-il d’aborder les tabous sans heurter qui que ce soit ? Humour et tabou quelles relations ? Humour, éthique et tabou quelle dynamique ?

Rencontres philosophiques sur le thème “Les Autres” avec la participation notamment de Régis Debray, Jean-Marc Ferry, Françoise Héritier, Patrick Lang, Michela Marzano, Robert Misrahi, Joëlle Proust, Myriam Revault d’Allonnes, Jean Schneider… Tout Public.

Remerciements 

Je remercie La Ligue Contre le Cancer qui a autorisé la reproduction des affiches pour cette article Humour et tabou. Les illustrations sont de Binet, Cestac, Giraud, Nico, Vuillemin et Zep. Toute utilisation de ce contenu est donc soumise aux dispositions du Code de la propriété intellectuelle Loi N° 92-597 du 1er juillet 1992. Copyright 2008 La Ligue Contre le Cancer. L’utilisation de tout ou partie du contenu des affiches de la marque est interdite sans autorisation préalable.

sujet connexe : l’humour en publicitéle dilemme en humour

extrait video Youtube :
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ymjtkLIcYDM

Catégorie : Conférences

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Ethics and humour in advertising strategy

Ethics and humour or humor advertising strategy

Ethics and humour

Sometimes in advertising, ethics and humour are closely related. Through the analysis of advertisements, we demonstrate how certain types of humour summon ethics, but also how this summoning weakens the confidence that the sender seeks to establish with the receivers. It thus appears that certain humorous types can render the advertisement inefficient regarding its objectives by playing on the receivers’ modality of believing/not-believing and the sender’s modality of crediting /discrediting. In order to choose the “good” combination between these two alternatives of this modality and the crediting or descrediting the sender is helped by the semiotic generativity of the utterance. This article stems from a more complete and more general work about humour, its types and properties, as well as the operations inherent to it.

Ethics and humour, introduction

Brand in advertising grasps the ethical question even when its marketing strategy seeks to avoid this dimension, while another will openly embrace it.

– Potentializing – actualizing the recipient’s purchase of or adhesion to the product or service proposed.

– In the process of persuasion, humor can help the brand. It allows for the reader to go from being a mere sender to participate in the enunciation.

– For the target receiver of an ironic proposition (the foil and a helper audience)
the critique of its value presupposes the crediting of its opposite and summons dysphoria, by which we mean a phoric state worse than the receiver’s initial state.

– For the sender (author and subscribing public) the critique of the opposite value presupposes the crediting of its value and summons euphoria. The commutations are thus inverted.

– We consider humour as a collective organization of enunciations aiming at the very least for the phoric commutation of the actants, which can however generate a movement of rendering the actants responsible through ethic and/or axiological mutation.

– Commutation is an operation between two positions along one sole semantic axis. It allows the transition from one position to the other: to move from a dysphoric state to a euphoric state, from one behavior pattern to another, from one value to another. Commutation is also an operation between two commutations along two different semantic axes. It also allows commutation along a second axis. Mutation is effected between the phoric axis and/or the axiological axis. It’s a combination of commutations.

– humour (as a category containing different types) thus renders possible different types of commutations  by articulating these scales.

– To situate this operation with regards to the comprehension of humour defined earlier, we have presupposed the existence of 3 scales: phoric, ethic and axiological (with gradated positions)

– We are going to consider them as postulates without seeking to demonstrate their existence. The choice of 3 scales stems from the research currently in progress. It is founded both on a theoretical viewpoint through the confrontation of multidisciplinary conceptions of humour and on an empirical viewpoint, through the numerous concrete analyses that validate it. […]

Conclusion :

Let us now resume our analysis on the relation between ethics and humour

– On a figurative level, because of their excessive specificity, the humorous scenarios are not very plausible.

On the thematic level, this plausibility is induced by a lack of specificity and abstraction.

Now, this transition from the (general) thematic to the (specific, particular) figurative concerns exactly what Jacques Fontanille has referred to as ethical casuistics. According to Jacques Fontanille “The true ethical discourse is the one that deploys alternative figurative paths using thematical-narrative paths and abstract axiological principles”.

Though the figurative level presents alternative paths without their being abstract. As a matter of fact, it is even their realism that allows for humour, and humour that in turn allows one to support them. For the receiver, humour makes the unacceptable acceptable and allows for the suspension of ethical judgment. It therefore appears to us that one must add abstraction to the alternative aspect of the figurative level.

A recapitulation is provided in the following chart, after which we’ll proceed to two other examples in order to illustrate the ethical problematic through abstract figurative paths followed by an example of a type of humour that resolves the debate between ethics and humour in favor of the brand.

http://epublications.unilim.fr/revues/as/2027

ethics and humor in advertising strategy

Catégorie : Parutions

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